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Continuing a tradition established by the king’s grandmother, Queen Savang Vadhana, and carried on by his father, the king also promoted medical training.

In 1955, he honored his brother's memory by establishing the Anandamahidol Fund, which grants scholarships for advanced study abroad in medicine. The fund would eventually sponsor students for degrees in many branches of science and technology and occasionally other disciplines. On 3 April 1959, the king elevated its status to the Anandamahidol Foundation.

According to Dr. Suwit Wibulpolprasert of the Ministry of Public Health, scholarship recipients, after completing advanced studies abroad, return to pass on their newfound knowledge. "Several research institutes have been established for returnees to undertake research studies in the country," he said.

Between 1959 and 2011, a total of 293 students received advanced degrees abroad on scholarships from the foundation. Some early recipients of scholarships became leaders in establishing their branch of healthcare in Thailand, such as Dr. Charas Suwanwela, a specialist in neurosurgery, and Dr. Prawase Wasi, a specialist in hematology.

The Anandamahidol Foundation helped foster the development of a corps of medical professionals who would help drive the advance of the public health system.